Blockchain and online voting!

The blockchain offers a secure voting tool, the result of which is transparent and auditable by everyone. Neither the voting administrator nor other individuals may modify the vote a posteriori.

At least three elements are necessary to carry out a vote on a blockchain: a programmable asset, a protocol to make the vote live; and a cryptographic key called a token, a kind of digital electoral card, to guarantee the voter’s identity.

Above each bitcoin transaction is metadata that can represent a digital asset: this asset can be a vote, a financial asset, or a physical asset (an object) that would be recorded on a blockchain, which would provide proof of existence.

A vote is a critical transaction: it must be executed quickly by the network. To do this, transaction fees are added to remunerate miners which are securing the network.

They start by processing the transactions with the highest fees and then handle the subsequent operations in descending order. If the network is saturated when a vote is a cast, minors will tend to defer this vote to the next blocks. Therefore, the idea is to put transaction fees of about 10 euro cents (depending on the bitcoin price) to be more or less sure that the network will process the vote.

The voting administrator (which may be an association, or a company organizing an AGM with its shareholders, or even a state) places as many tokens as there are votes cast on a specific protocol. It transmits these tokens to all voters, who have access to an electronic wallet to hold the tokens.

Candidates have access to a digital ballot box.

afsgdbndcnvmfgihkglllllllllA wallet, with a public address. When the voter issues his or her voting token, he or she transfers both the bitcoins that include transaction fees and the metadata that represents the vote. At the end of the vote, the winning candidate is the one who received the most chips.

To complete this process, a digital electoral map is necessary to ensure that whoever presents himself to his wallet is the owner of this wallet. One part of the key is public, the other private: you can draw a parallel in the traditional banking world with the RIB, which you can communicate to anyone, and the PIN code, which must not be shared.

The projects dedicated to voting on the blockchain are still in the experimental stage. One of them, Boule, estimates that a traditional vote costs about 5 dollars and that this cost could be divided by 2 or even 3 using the bitcoin block chine.

However, there are still some obstacles to be overcome if the vote on the blockade is to take place.

The cost of transactions: in the case of a vote of 1 million people, with transaction fees of 10 cents, the cost of organizing the vote would be 100,000 minimum…

The speed of transactions: today it is estimated at 7 transactions per second on the Bitcoin network. For example, it would take an average of 23 operations per second to get 1 million voters to vote within 12 hours.

Protection of the digital electoral map against malware attack, which could corrupt the vote. However, a parade is conceivable: not to store the cryptographic key on software but hardware, i. e. in a physical way, like the key proposed by the start-up Ledger.

We’ll see where this ends I guess over the course of the next few months/years…

Russian and American agree to develop common space technologies

Space cooperation between NASA and Roscomos is strengthened by the signing of a joint declaration between the United States and Russia. The focus is on the development of a lunar orbital station, the possibility of which is becoming clearer.

aappoeieuytytttttttttttttWould the Americans and Russians finally leave the Cold War aside to work together with their eyes turned towards space… and the Moon in particular? The sign is timid: the two countries have just signed a joint declaration in Adelaide, Australia, where the 68th International Astronautical Congress is being held.

This agreement will enable the two space agencies Nasa and Roscosmos to work on joint projects, in particular on deep space exploration to the Moon, from the International Space Station as a strategic launch pad. However, it would be abusive at this stage to announce the joint construction of a future Moon base.

Objective Moon

The U. S. Space Agency is considering exploring the Moon and its surrounding space from an advanced base, a vast project called the Deep Space Gateway. In this context, NASA will use the International Space Station (ISS) as a base for further exploration of space, prior to the creation of this inhabited international platform to orbit around the Moon, which will send astronauts into lunar orbit using new rockets developed by the American Space Agency. This statement comes in the context of a space exploration that is running out of steam, against a backdrop of limited funding.

This is all the more so since the ISS’s lifespan, which has already been extended by 4 years, is only up to 2024. Its future replacement could thus be seen as a front-port to the Moon.

Space, a field of international cooperation

Space is one of the few areas of bilateral cooperation not affected by the intense tensions between the United States and Russia. The two countries cooperate in particular within the framework of the ISS, of which Russia provides the main module and has the only ship capable of sending spacewalkers since the American space shuttles stopped. In particular, the Russian Angara and Proton-M rockets could be used in parallel with the American heavy launcher SLS, whose first flight is planned for 2018.

Nokia puts operators on the road to 5G by boosting 4G performance

Nokia expands its comprehensive portfolio of broadband technology products and solutions to provide operators with greater flexibility to meet consumer demand and improve the performance of mobile networks as they evolve to 5G.

fgsgdbnnnnnnmooooioiiAs mobile broadband traffic continues to grow, operators want to improve network performance where they see high demand – typically first deployments in dynamic urban centers.
Increased capacity, higher throughput and variable network latency are required to meet consumer, business and Internet of Things (IoT) demand and ensure a smooth transition to 5G. To this end, Nokia has defined a viable network evolution strategy that will enable operators to leverage existing investments and maximize resources such as spectrum, to increase performance where and when needed in the network.

To do this, Nokia is expanding its portfolio of AirScale distributed RF heads, enabling operators to increase maximum cell performance and capacity while reducing space requirements at cellular sites via new single- and dual-band FDD-LTE and TD-LTE radio solutions.

These solutions are based on carrier aggregation technologies, MIMO 4×4 and Beamforming 8×4. They also meet the demand for higher transmission power, expand support for frequency bands and simplify network deployments.

To intensify the deployment of heterogeneous networks and increase the coverage and capacity of the most frequented locations – especially in very dense urban environments – operators will have to deploy a new wave of small cells. Self-Organizing Network (SON) features on Flexi Zone small cells will simplify ultra-dense network deployments, providing solutions to problems caused by the reduced distance between existing and new small cells, and ensuring continuous optimization as densification continues.

Nokia has extended its SON functionality on its Femtocell product line to ensure smooth integration and increased performance in heterogeneous networks when unloading traffic on the macro network.

5g ready networks

The new features of the first Nokia Flexi Zone CBRS small cells, which support Spectrum Access Server (SAS) and Citizen Broadband Radio Service Device Proxy connectivity, will provide operators with new options to increase coverage and capacity, especially inside buildings. CBRS Flexi Zone small cells can be used to deploy host-independent capabilities, allowing operators to lease capacity to other suppliers in shopping malls, hotels and office buildings where space is limited. By FCC requirements, small cells will be able to effectively communicate with the SAS server to verify that the network uses only the available shared CBRS spectrum.

To ensure the flexibility of wireless backhauling in heterogeneous and ultra-dense urban networks – which use microwave beam transport to connect small cells to fiber access points – Nokia Wavence Microwave solutions now support operator SDNs. Operators will benefit from new intelligence and a new level of automation: faster start-up of virtual network functions and adaptable settings to accommodate changes in the radio access network, for example when users move from their offices to their homes.

These multi-technology access solutions are anchored in the Nokia Cloud Packet Core solution. Its native cloud features and operations deliver the performance operators need to provide diverse, demanding and cost-effective applications and services: increased capacity, the large-scale scalability required for network densification, and the deployment flexibility required to deliver low latency.

Nokia continues to help operators plan and optimize their migration to 5G with its 5G Acceleration Services offering and expands its portfolio to include a complete “any haul” transportation offering. Nokia will work with operators to assess the state of their network and design and implement their 5G strategies and services.

We fully understand how changes to individual network elements can affect the network as a whole. And to develop our complete range of products.

These 5 Breakthrough Technologies will Influence the life of everyone in 2017

These Technologies will have an effect on everybody.  It will affect politics and the economy, improve medicine and even influence culture.  Some are new at the moment and some are developing at the moment and will develop further through decades to come.  These Technologies all have the possibility of staying power. Technology now and developing for the future:

  1. Medicine: Reversing Paralysis; remarkable progress has been made to restore freedom of movement, caused by spinal cord injuries, through using brain implants.  This technology will be available to all in 10 to 15 years time.
  2. Photography: Spherical images made by Inexpensive Cameras; are opening a whole new world of taking pictures and sharing stories.  An ecological researcher needed a system to broadcast images continuously to collect data and devised a camera that can create 360-degree pictures.  This technology is available now for all to take their 360-degree selfies, etc.
  3. Education: Computers are experimenting and figuring out how to perform things a programmer would be able to teach them.  This approach is known as, “Reinforcement Learning”, and is not done through programming in a conventional way, at all.  The computer is learning to perform certain tasks, etc. simply by practicing.  This technology will be freely available in 1 to 2 years time.
  4. Economy: Self-Driving Trucks; Tractor-trailers without drivers might soon be passing you on the highway.  Many technical problems still exist, but it is claimed that self-driving trucks will be less costly as well as safer.  Availability will come in about 5 to 10 years time.  This is also the time in which the world can think about what this technology will mean for the millions of truck drivers that will lose their jobs.
  5. Environment: Hot Solar Cells; converting sunlight into heat firstly and then turning it back into light-energy, focused in beams, can dramatically increase efficiency.  This smaller solar device, smaller than the usual solar panels, can absorb more energy and could create continuous, cheap power.  This will only become available within 10 to 15 years from now.

Most of these technologies are future technologies, still in the developing phases, but it is good to know about them.  It will give time to consider the influences, good or bad, that it might have on the world and its inhabitants.

How can you maximize your Businesses Efficiency through the use of Technology?

Introducing new technological changes into your business or organization will present a whole different set of challenges towards shepherding that innovation into a routine action to all personnel. The easiest way might be to include all probable users in the research on user needs and their individual preferences and then together find a way to implement the new technology that will be acceptable and workable for all

Difficulties you might come across when Introducing New Technology in the Workplace, and how to solve these Problems.

  1. Resistance to Change: Resistance often grows out of misinformation, possibly overlooked issues or mistakes made through ignorance of the change.  This can mostly be countered by including all personnel involved or influenced by the change, through providing information, sharing knowledge and giving a clear view of what the benefits of the changes will be.
  2. Personal Benefit: New Innovations need to offer an advantage, an obviously clear advantage, over whatever it is intended to replace.  It is of great importance to make clear the potential benefits and apparent rewards.  Also, promote the need to learn new skills in order to increase the value of work and greater recognition.
  3. Gather Information from current work systems: Discuss current problems and difficulties with each department new technology will be implemented.  Find out the times of day systems run, the sequence of work done, the choices that are made by personnel daily and how the changes will affect everyone and the work they are responsible for.  This will enable you to spot probable problem areas and where more training or knowledge will be needed.  Always run a clear and open change campaign to make everyone feel included.

When all is said and done, the new technology changes in your business, company or workplace, will make processes faster, and much easier to ‘file’ and keep information.  Your business can run smoother, more cost effective and less time-consuming.  In other words; “More Efficient”.