Month: October 2017

Blockchain and online voting!

blockchain and voting

The blockchain offers a secure voting tool, the result of which is transparent and auditable by everyone. Neither the voting administrator nor other individuals may modify the vote a posteriori.

At least three elements are necessary to carry out a vote on a blockchain: a programmable asset, a protocol to make the vote live; and a cryptographic key called a token, a kind of digital electoral card, to guarantee the voter’s identity.

Above each bitcoin transaction is metadata that can represent a digital asset: this asset can be a vote, a financial asset, or a physical asset (an object) that would be recorded on a blockchain, which would provide proof of existence.

A vote is a critical transaction: it must be executed quickly by the network. To do this, transaction fees are added to remunerate miners which are securing the network.

They start by processing the transactions with the highest fees and then handle the subsequent operations in descending order. If the network is saturated when a vote is a cast, minors will tend to defer this vote to the next blocks. Therefore, the idea is to put transaction fees of about 10 euro cents (depending on the bitcoin price) to be more or less sure that the network will process the vote.

The voting administrator (which may be an association, or a company organizing an AGM with its shareholders, or even a state) places as many tokens as there are votes cast on a specific protocol. It transmits these tokens to all voters, who have access to an electronic wallet to hold the tokens.

Candidates have access to a digital ballot box.

afsgdbndcnvmfgihkglllllllllA wallet, with a public address. When the voter issues his or her voting token, he or she transfers both the bitcoins that include transaction fees and the metadata that represents the vote. At the end of the vote, the winning candidate is the one who received the most chips.

To complete this process, a digital electoral map is necessary to ensure that whoever presents himself to his wallet is the owner of this wallet. One part of the key is public, the other private: you can draw a parallel in the traditional banking world with the RIB, which you can communicate to anyone, and the PIN code, which must not be shared.

The projects dedicated to voting on the blockchain are still in the experimental stage. One of them, Boule, estimates that a traditional vote costs about 5 dollars and that this cost could be divided by 2 or even 3 using the bitcoin block chine.

However, there are still some obstacles to be overcome if the vote on the blockade is to take place.

The cost of transactions: in the case of a vote of 1 million people, with transaction fees of 10 cents, the cost of organizing the vote would be 100,000 minimum…

The speed of transactions: today it is estimated at 7 transactions per second on the Bitcoin network. For example, it would take an average of 23 operations per second to get 1 million voters to vote within 12 hours.

Protection of the digital electoral map against malware attack, which could corrupt the vote. However, a parade is conceivable: not to store the cryptographic key on software but hardware, i. e. in a physical way, like the key proposed by the start-up Ledger.

We’ll see where this ends I guess over the course of the next few months/years…

Nokia puts operators on the road to 5G by boosting 4G performance


Nokia expands its comprehensive portfolio of broadband technology products and solutions to provide operators with greater flexibility to meet consumer demand and improve the performance of mobile networks as they evolve to 5G.

fgsgdbnnnnnnmooooioiiAs mobile broadband traffic continues to grow, operators want to improve network performance where they see high demand – typically first deployments in dynamic urban centers.
Increased capacity, higher throughput and variable network latency are required to meet consumer, business and Internet of Things (IoT) demand and ensure a smooth transition to 5G. To this end, Nokia has defined a viable network evolution strategy that will enable operators to leverage existing investments and maximize resources such as spectrum, to increase performance where and when needed in the network.

To do this, Nokia is expanding its portfolio of AirScale distributed RF heads, enabling operators to increase maximum cell performance and capacity while reducing space requirements at cellular sites via new single- and dual-band FDD-LTE and TD-LTE radio solutions.

These solutions are based on carrier aggregation technologies, MIMO 4×4 and Beamforming 8×4. They also meet the demand for higher transmission power, expand support for frequency bands and simplify network deployments.

To intensify the deployment of heterogeneous networks and increase the coverage and capacity of the most frequented locations – especially in very dense urban environments – operators will have to deploy a new wave of small cells. Self-Organizing Network (SON) features on Flexi Zone small cells will simplify ultra-dense network deployments, providing solutions to problems caused by the reduced distance between existing and new small cells, and ensuring continuous optimization as densification continues.

Nokia has extended its SON functionality on its Femtocell product line to ensure smooth integration and increased performance in heterogeneous networks when unloading traffic on the macro network.

5g ready networks

The new features of the first Nokia Flexi Zone CBRS small cells, which support Spectrum Access Server (SAS) and Citizen Broadband Radio Service Device Proxy connectivity, will provide operators with new options to increase coverage and capacity, especially inside buildings. CBRS Flexi Zone small cells can be used to deploy host-independent capabilities, allowing operators to lease capacity to other suppliers in shopping malls, hotels and office buildings where space is limited. By FCC requirements, small cells will be able to effectively communicate with the SAS server to verify that the network uses only the available shared CBRS spectrum.

To ensure the flexibility of wireless backhauling in heterogeneous and ultra-dense urban networks – which use microwave beam transport to connect small cells to fiber access points – Nokia Wavence Microwave solutions now support operator SDNs. Operators will benefit from new intelligence and a new level of automation: faster start-up of virtual network functions and adaptable settings to accommodate changes in the radio access network, for example when users move from their offices to their homes.

These multi-technology access solutions are anchored in the Nokia Cloud Packet Core solution. Its native cloud features and operations deliver the performance operators need to provide diverse, demanding and cost-effective applications and services: increased capacity, the large-scale scalability required for network densification, and the deployment flexibility required to deliver low latency.

Nokia continues to help operators plan and optimize their migration to 5G with its 5G Acceleration Services offering and expands its portfolio to include a complete “any haul” transportation offering. Nokia will work with operators to assess the state of their network and design and implement their 5G strategies and services.

We fully understand how changes to individual network elements can affect the network as a whole. And to develop our complete range of products.